Dr Hassan Malekinejad

Birth Place: Shabestar, Iran


Nationality: Iranian


Marital Status: Married (2 kids)


Date of birth: August 23, 1967


Working Address:

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology (VPT), Faculty of Vet. Medicine, UrmiaUniversity, Urmia, Iran, and

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Pharmacy, and Toxicology (VFFT), Faculty of Vet. Medicine, Yalelaan 16, 3508 TD, The Netherlands

Tel. Privet:

Mobile: +98 914 149 6558

Tel. Work: +984412792608

E-mail Address; hassanmalekinejad@yahoo.com & h.malekinejad@urmia.ac.ir

Residence Address: Dept. of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Orumieh), IRAN.



Research field:

My interested areas of research are:

A-  Mycotoxins:

Ø  Feed and food analysis,

Ø  Food safety and in particular risk assessment in field of hormones level in food stuffs;

Ø  Isolation, Identification of moulds and study of mycotoxins toxicity,

Ø  Study of approaches, which result in the prevention or control of mycotoxins production in food and feedstuffs (running project of OTA in raisin);

Ø  Therapeutic effects of mycotoxins in human and domestic animals (cell culture model);

Ø  Biotransformation of mycotoxins;

Ø  Study of transcriptional pathways of Mycotoxins effects in in vitro and in vivo models;

B- Food safety and risk assessment:

Ø  A controversial project of “Steroid hormones in dairy foods and their relationship with prostate, breast and uterine cancers” has already initiated.

a.     Detection of steroids and their major metabolites by means of LC-MS/MS, which will be followed by investigation of absorption and biotransformation of detected steroid hormones by CaCo2 cell line and hepatic sub-cellular fractions.

b.    Finally this project will pursue to consider the potential carcinogenesis of detected steroids and their metabolites on human breast and prostate cancer cells and mechanism of carcinogenesis.

C – Drug and xenobiotic biotranformation;

D- Drug and xenobiotic transport via biological membrane with high focus on mycotoxins and NSAIDs transport via ATP-dependent efflux proteins;

Ø  Currently, the project of drugs and xenobiotics active transport through the biological barriers including cell membrane is running.

                          i.        In this particular project the main objection is to elucidate the role(s) of ATP-dependent active transporters of MRP2 and 4, and BCRP in transport of PGs and consequently any effect(s) of NSAIDs on this transport.

E- Experimentally-induced infectious diseases such as Pyelonephritis and its therapeutic approaches:

F- Herbal Medicine

- Antioxidant power of plants;

- Analgesic properties of plants;

- Estrogenic effects of plants;

- Antidiabetic properties of the plants.

F- Hypoxia/Reoxygenation


Scientific skills:

1-     Fungal isolation from feed and food samples;

2-     Toxin extraction by various methods;

3-     HPLC analysis;

4-     Cell culture methods;

5-     In vitro cytotoxicity bioassay tests (MTT, AB, NR, ATP content, ROS measurement);

6-     Apoptotic assays (ROS, Caspase activities, DNA laddering, Cytochrome C measurement)

7-     Assessment of hormones activities and their catalytical enzyme profiles;

8-     Inhibition studies;

9-     Hepatic and extra-hepatic biotransformation methods for drugs and xenobiotics;

10-   In vitro oocyte maturation (IVM), and toxicity assays in this field;

11-  Confocol microscopy study, Fluorescence microscopy studies;

12-  Histochemistry methods for enzyme expression;

13-  Working with Laboratory animals and also farm animals;

14-  LC-MS/MS and GC-MS;

15-  PCR (RT-PCR, QPCR),

16-  Drug and xenobiotics transport studies;

17-  Hypoxia and re-oxygenation studies;

18-  Oxidative and nitosative stress (TAOP, Lipid Peroxidation, Total thiol molecules, NO) assays;

19-  Ex-vivo studies in power Lab system;

20-  Analgesimetry (Tail flick, Hot plate, and formalin tests)


Education & Research:


Ø  July 1987-1992: Urmia (Oromieh) University, Urmia, Iran, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.);

Ø  September 1992- August 2000: Instructor in pharmacology division of Basic Sciences Group of Urmia Vet. Faculty (Pharmacology & Toxicology Department);

Ø  15th August of 2000- 16th December of 2004: Ph.D. Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, Utrecht University;

Ø  February 2005 till November 2005, Postdoc researcher at Public Health & Food Safety Department of Utrecht University, working on dairy products mainly cow milk steroid hormones levels at different periods of pregnancy and influence of fat percentage on hormone content in processed milk;

Ø   November 2005 till January 2007, Postdoc researcher at Pharmacology, Pharmacy, & Toxicology Department of Utrecht University, working on drugs and xenobiotics transport using in vitro cell lines model (Molecular Pharmacology),


A- List of Publications:

A-1) Full papers:

1-    Malekinejad H, Maas-Bakker RF, and Fink-Gremmels J., (2005). Bioactivation of Zearalenone by porcine hepatic biotransformation. Veterinary Research, 36, 799-810.

2-    Malekinejad H, Maas-Bakker RF, and Fink-Gremmels J., (2006). Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in bovine and porcine granulosa cells convert Zearalenone into it hydroxylated metabolites of alph-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol. Veterinary Research Communication, 30(4): 445-453.

3-    Malekinejad H, Maas-Bakker RF, and Fink-Gremmels J., (2005). Enzymatic Kinetics of Zearalenone biotransformation: effects of pH and co-factors. Archives of Toxicology, 79 (10): 547-553.

4-    Malekinejad H, Maas-Bakker RF, and Fink-Gremmels J., 2006. Species differences in the hepatic biotransformation of Zearalenone. Vet J, 172 (1) 96-102.

5-    Malekinejad H, Van Tol HTA, Colenbrander B, and Fink-Gremmels, J., Expression of 3alph-and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA in COCs and granulosa cells determines Zearalenone biotransformation. Toxicology In Vitro, 20 (2006), 458-463.

6-    Maleki Hadi and Malekinejad Hassan, 2007Phenoxybenzamine Treatment Is insufficient to Prevent the Stress-induced Effect in Rat Gastrointestinal Tract. International Journal of Pharmacology, 2(6): 663-665.

7-    Malekinejad H., Peter Scherpenisse and Aldert A. Bergwerff., 2006 Naturally occurring estrogens in processed milk and in raw milk (from gestated cows)., Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 54(26); 9785-9791;

8-    Sabater-Vilar, M., Malekinejad, H., Selman M.H.J, van der Doelen M.A.M., J. Fink-Gremmels. In vitro assessment of adsorbents aiming to prevent deoxynivalenol and zearalenone mycotoxicoses.  Mycopathologia _ Springer 2007, DOI 10.1007/s11046-007-0093-6.

9-    Malekinejad H., Schoevers EJ., Colenbrander B, Fink-Gremmels J., and Roelen BAJ., The Fusarium Toxins Zearalenone and Deoxynivalenol Cause Spindal Malformation in Porcine Oocytes. Biology of Reproduction (BOR) Published on line.

10-  Fink-Gremmels, J and Malekinejad, H., 2007 . Biochemical mechanisms and clinical effects associated with exposure to the mycoestrogen Zearalenone. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 137:326-341.

11-  Malekinejad H, Farshid AA, and Mirzakhani N., 2010. The liquorice Plant Extract reduces Ochratoxin A-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology,

12- Malekinejad H, Rahmani F, and Hassanpour F., 2010, Influences of sub-acute exposure to paraquat on cytochrome P450 3A2 expression in rat liver and lungs. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 96(3): 149-154

13- Malekinejad HMirzakhani, Navideh., Razi, Mazdak, Cheraghi, Hadi, Alizadeh, Arash., Dardmeh, Fereshteh, 2010. Protective effects of Melatonin and Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on Ochratoxin A – induced damages on testes in mature rats. Human & Experimental Toxicology,

14-  Malekinejad H, Rahmani F, and Bahrampour K., 2010.  Zearalenone is bioactivated by the river Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hepatic biotransformationTropical Animal Health and production, 42: 1229-1234.

15-  Malekinejad H, Tukmechi A.  Ebrahimi H.  Bazargani-Gilani B. 2010. One step forward to improve the latest method of antibacterial susceptibility testing of vitro-cultured bacteria: an implication for antibacterial efficacy of Enrofloxacine on Aeromonas hydrophila. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. DOI 10.1007/s11274-010-0440-5.

16-  Malekinejad H, Taheri-Brodjerdi M, Moradi M, Tabatabaie S-H. 2010. Silymarin potentiates the antinociceptive effect of morphine in mice. Phytotherapy research, DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3251.


B-1) Submitted papers

1- Effect of TAM on follicologenesis in rat. Submitted to IJBMS

2- ZEA hepatic biotransformation in rainbow trout, submitted to VRC.


C-1) Abstract Papers

1-     Malekinejad H, Nafisi S, sadeghi-Hashjin G, and Hassan-Hoseini AM., 1999Evaluation of the influence of xylazine-HCL on the Adrenalin-induced elevation of blood glucose in the mouse. Abstracts: 14th Iranian Congress of Physiol & Pharmacol. 1999; 147.

2-     Malekinejad H, and Zahmati H., Evaluation of the effects of Capsicum Annum extract (CAE) on the peptic ulcer induced by aspirin in rat. 2000, 1st Iranian Congress of Veterinary Basic Science, Tehran, Iran.

3-     Malekinejad H., and Davtalab M., Capsaicin and Neostigmine effects on the consumption of food and water in rats. 25-29 April 2000, WSAVA-FECAVA Congress, World Congress Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

4-      Malekinejad. H, R.F. Maas., and J. Fink-Gremmels. Biotransformation of zearalenone by pig and sheep liver microsomes. Veterinary Science Day Congress, Utrecht University, November of 2002.

5-      Malekinejad H, Rahmani F, Bull S, and Fink-Gremmels J. Cytotoxic effects of P.roqueforti mycotoxins. 16th Iranian Physiology and Pharmacology congress, 9-13 of May 2003, Tehran, Iran.

6-     Malekinejad H, Maas RM, Colenbrander B, and Fink-Gremmels J., 2003. The oestrogenic effect of mycotoxin zearalenone in different species depends on biotransformation pathways, Journal of Vet. Pharma and Thera. 26(1): 165-166.

7-     Malekinejad H, Bull S, and Fink-Gremmels J., 2003. Apoptosis: a possible mechanism involved in equine grass sickness. Journal of Vet. Pharma and Thera. 26(1): 257-258.

8-     Malekinejad H and Fink-Gremmels J., 2003. Zearalenone- an emerging toxin. 14th symposium of Tropical Animal Health and Production (Environmental contaminants and natural toxins in the food chain), PP: 51-54, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

9-     Malekinejad H and Fink-Gremmels J., 2004. Bioactivation of Zearalenone. 15th International Symposium on Microsomes and Drug Oxidations: Chemical biology in the postgenomic Era, New approaches and applications, July 4th –9th, Mains, Germany.

10-  Malekinejad H, Colenbrander B, and Fink-Gremmels J., 2004. The effects of Fusarium toxins (Zearalenone and Deoxynivalenol) on in vitro oocyte maturation. 9th Iranian Seminar of Pharmaceutical Science, 23-26 August, Tabrize, Iran, PP: 268.

11-  Malekinejad H., K. Kirschbaum, M. Mense, P. Scherpenisse and A. Bergwerff. Oestrogens in processed milk and in raw milk from gested caws. 5th International symposium on hormone and veterinary drug residue analysis. Held at the Province of AntwerpHouse, Antwerp, Belgium, May 16-19, 2006.

12-   Malekinejad H., Rahmani F. and Fink-Gremmels J. 2006. Toxicity of Penicillium roqueforti toxins in Neuro-2a and genetically engineered PC-12 cell with P53. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 29 (1): 322-323.

13-   Malekinejad H., Rahmani F. and Fink-Gremmels JCytochrome C and Caspase-3/7 involve in Mycophenolic acid-induced apoptosis in genetically engineered PC12 cells with P53, 9th Congress of IST, 2007, 15-17 May, Shiraz, Iran.

14-   Malekinejad H., Selman M, de Vrieze G, Rahmani F. and Fink-Gremmels J., Isolation, extraction and identification of Aspergillus fumigatus toxins from bovine gastrointestinal content and study of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of extracted toxins on human T lymphocytes (Jurkat cells), 2007, 21-25th May, Istanbul, Turkey, XIIth International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins.

15-   Malekinejad, H and Fink-Gremmels, J.  Biotransformation of the mycoestrogen Zearalenone in horses. 29th Mycotoxin-workshop, 14th-16th May 2007, Fellbach, Germany.

16-    Malekinejad, H and Fink-Gremmels, J.  Effect of Zearalenone on Cytochrome P450 1A1 activity and mRNA level in TCDD-induced Human Breast Cancer (MCF-7) cells. 18th Iranian Physiology & Pharmacology Congress, 26-30th August 2007, Mashhad,Iran.

17-   Malekinejad H., 2007. Mycotoxins in food and feed chain and their impact on human health. The 17th Iranian National Food Industry Congress. November 2007, Urmia, Iran.

18-  Malekinejad, H and Fink-Gremmels, J., Effect of Zearalenone on CYP 1A1 and CYP1B1 activities and mRNA levels in TCDD-induced MCF-7 cells. 30th Mycotoxin Workshop, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 28-30 April 2008.

19-  Hamidi M, Malekinejad H, Ahmadi A, and Sadrkhanlou RA. Toxicity of tamoxifen on hormonal situ in adult rat and folliculogenesis in fetus. 11th Iranian Pharmaceutical Sciences Conference, August 18-21, 2008, Kerman, Iran.

20-  Hamidi M, Malekinejad H, Ahmadi A, and Sadrkhanlou RA. Tamoxifen alters hormonal level in adult rats and folliculogenesis in fetus. Royan International Twin Congress, August 27-29, 2008, Tehran, Iran (Abstract also published in Yakhteh, 2008, 10(1): 75-76.)

21- Malekinejad H, Amini M, and Mehran-Jalil Z. Allopurinol reduces reactive species oxygen production during hypoxic condition in neuronal cells. 1st International congress of veterinary Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical sciences, October 4-5, 2008, Tehran, Iran.

22- Malekinejad H, Taheri-Broujerdi M, and Tabatabaie S-H. Silymarin exerts its analgesic effects via antioxidant power. 1st International congress of veterinary Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical sciences, October 4-5, 2008,Tehran, Iran.

23- Malekinejad H, Mohammadzadeh M, and Abdalinia M. Study of Dizepam effect on haematological tabulate and the liver histopathology in therapeutic and toxic doses in dog. 1st International congress of veterinary Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical sciences, October 4-5, 2008, Tehran, Iran.

24- Malekinejad H, Alizadeh A, Dardmeh F, Cheraghi H, Mirzakhani N, and Meshkini S. The Liquorice Plant Extract proved the CCL4-induced damages of the fish hepatotoxicity. 1st International congress of veterinary Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical sciences, October 4-5, 2008, Tehran, Iran.

25- Malekinejad H, Gholizadeh S, and Tabatabaie S-H. Study of Analgesic and Antioxidant effects of Cholchicine extract in rat: in vivo and in vitro approaches. 1st International congress of veterinary Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical sciences, October 4-5, 2008, Tehran, Iran.

26- Malekinejad H, Ebrahimi H, and Taheri-Broujerdi M. Study of various concentrations effect of Silymarin on proliferation of MCF7 and LNcap cells. 1st International congress of veterinary Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical sciences, October 4-5, 2008, Tehran, Iran.

27- Malekinejad H, Akbari P, and Alavi MH. Xanthin Oxidas inhibitors reduce nitric oxide production in hypoxic neuro-2a cells. 1st International congress of veterinary Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical sciences, October 4-5, 2008, Tehran, Iran.

28- Malekinejad H and Fink-Gremmels J. The natural estrogens and mycoestrogens: From simple cell proliferation to transcriptional effects on Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 expression in human breast cancer cells. The Ehrlisch II congress, 3-5 October, 2008, Nuremberg, Germany.

29- Malekinejad H, Fink-Gremmels J. Effects of Allopurinol on intracellular ATP-content and the reactive oxygen species generation in hypoxic Neuro-2a cells. 11th EAVPT Congress, 12-16 of July 2009, Leipzig, Germany.

30-  Malekinejad H, Razi M, Alizadeh A, Cheraghi H, Dardmeh F, and T Saiadi. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Flumetrin-induced toxicity in rat Testes. 11th EAVPT Congress, 12-16 of July 2009, Leipzig, Germany.

31-  Malekinejad H, Akbari P, allymehr M. Cyclopiazonic acid reduces bivalent cations in broiler chicks. 19th Iranian Congress of Physiology & pharmacology2009, Tehran, Iran.

32- Malekinejad H, Moradi M, Sheykhzadeh S. Potentiation of Morphine analgesia after pretreatment with silymarin.19th Iranian Congress of Physiology & pharmacology2009, Tehran, Iran.

33-  Malekinejad H, Akbari P, Resaie A. Co-occurrence of Cyclopiazonic acid and AFB1 in poultry diet. 1st national congress of Vet. Laboratory sciences. 2009, Tehran, Iran.

34- Malekinejad HRezabakhsh A, Rahmani F, Hobbenaghi R, and Cheraghi H.  Paraquat toxic effects are beyond the respiratory system: evidence for hepato- and renotoxicity. 2010, the 9th International Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (ISSX) to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, September 4 – 8, 2010.

35-  Malekinejad H, Akbari P, Alizadeh A and Tabatabaie SH. Occurrence of Cyclopiazonic acid in broiler’s diet andits effect on oxidative and nitrosative stress. the 9th International Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (ISSX) to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, September 4 – 8, 2010.

36- Malekinejad H, Akbari P, Hobbenaghi R, Varasteh S. Cyclopiazonic acid toxic effects on the liver and kidneys: biochemical and histopathological studies.  the 9th International Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (ISSX) to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, September 4 – 8, 2010.





B- Manuscripts under preparation

1-     Malekinejad, H. Bull, S., de Vreeze, G. J.Fink-Gremmels.  Cytotoxic effects of equine grass sickness (EGS) serum on neuro-2a cells and p53 expressing PC12 Tet-off cells. Research report 2003, p 22.

2-     Malekinejad, H., Bull, S., de Vrieze, G., Fink-Gremmels, J. Apoptosis, a possible mechanisms involved in the neuropathy of equine grass sickness patients. Manuscript in preparation.

3-     Malekinejad, H., Bull, S., Fink-Gremmels, J. Cytotoxic effects of P. roqueforti toxins on Neuro- 2a and p53 expressing PC12 Tet-off cells. Manuscript in preparation.

4-     Malekinejad, H., Fink-Gremmels. Penicillium roqueforti in silage. Manuscript in preparation.

5-     Malekinejad H. and Fink-Gremmels, J. Mycophenolic acid induces apoptosis in p53 expressing PC12 cells. Manuscript in preparation.

6-     Malekinejad H., Selman M, de Vrieze G, Rahmani F, Fink-Gremmels J., Aspergillus fumigatus toxins cause cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human T lymphocytes (Jurkat cells). Manuscript in preparation.

7-     Malekinejad H. and Bergweff AA. Hormones in dairy foods. Manuscript in preparation, a review manuscript.



1-     I got the prize for the first top paper in 17th Iranian national food industry congress, November 2007, Urmia, Iran.

2-     My paper has been selected as the excellent paper in 1st International Congress of Veterinary Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical Science, 2-4 October, 2008, Tehran, Iran.

3-     The prize of the 11th Iranian Society of Toxicology congress was devoted to my paper, which was about the Role of ATP binding efflux transporters, 2008, Tehran, Iran.


Teaching Experience:

Besides the research activities, teaching of Pharmacology and Toxicology subjects are part of my job. Those groups which are in my teaching program include:

1-     Undergraduate Veterinary Medicine students (DVM);

2-     Food hygiene PhD students (Urmia University);

3-     Veterinary physiology PhD students (Urmia University);

4-     Veterinary Toxicology PhD students (Tehran University


Executive Responsibilities:


1 – Vice-dean for financial fairs of Vet. Medicine Faculty of Urmia University, from 1993 to 1995.

2 - General Director of cultural fairs of Urmia University, from 1995 to 1998.

3- General Director of the basic sciences group from 15th December 2008.


International activities


1-     Pharmacokinetic-phrmacodynamic workshop, 1-7th of July of 2003, Lisbon, Portugal. Organized by European College of Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology (ECVPT).

2-     International mycotoxin workshop, 13-15th of June of 2005, Dortmund, Germany.

3-     10th International Congress of European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology (EAVPT), September 17th-22nd2006, Torino, Italy.

4-     29th Mycotoxin workshop, 14-16th May, 2007, Fellbach, Germany.

5-     XIIth International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, 2007, 21-25th May, Istanbul, Turkey.

6-     30th Mycotoxins workshop, 28-30th May, 2008, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

7-     The 2nd Ehrlisch magic bullet congress, 3-5 October, 2008, Nuremberg, Germany.  

8-     Chief in Editor for "International journal for Pharmacology Research" from Medewel Seri of journals, since …update;

9-     Reviewer for International journals such as: Thrigenelogy, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Veterinary Research Communication, Reproductive Toxicology, Toxicology Letters, World Mycotoxin Journal, Human and Experimental Toxicology, Veterinary Research Forum, Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Journal of Animal Science,…

10-  Short scientific fellowship, summer of 2009, Utrecht, The Netherlands.   


Membership in associations and scientific committees:

1-     General Sport Committee of Urmia University (GSC) (Expired),

2-     Cultural Council of Urmia University (Expired);

3-     Member of Iranian society of Physiology & Pharmacology (ISPP);

4-     Member in European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology (EAVPT);

5-     Member of Iranian Veterinarians Organization. 

6-     Member of Iranian society of Toxicology (IST).


7-     Member of International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (ISSX).